A spare part, spare, service part, repair part, or replacement part, is an interchangeable part that's kept in a listing and used for the repair or replacement of failed units. Spare parts are a crucial feature of logistics engineering and provide chain management, often comprising dedicated spare parts management systems.
Capital spares are spare parts which, although acknowledged to possess an extended life or a little chance of failure, would cause an extended shutdown of kit because it might take a long time to urge a replacement for them.
Spare parts are an outgrowth of the economic development of interchangeable parts and production.
In logistics, spare parts are often broadly classified into two groups, repairable and consumables.
Economically, there's a tradeoff between the value of ordering a replacement part and therefore the cost of repairing a failed part. When the value of repair becomes a big percentage of the value of replacement, it becomes economically favorable to easily order a replacement part. In such cases, the part is claimed to be "beyond economic repair" (BER), and therefore the percentage related to this threshold is understood because the BER rate. Analysis of economic tradeoffs is formally evaluated using Level of Repair Analysis (LORA).
Repairable parts are parts that are deemed deserve repair, usually by virtue of economic consideration of their repair cost. Rather than bear the worth of completely replacing a finished product, repairable typically are designed to enable cheaper maintenance by being more modular. That allows components to be more easily removed, repaired, and replaced, enabling cheaper replacement. Spare parts that are needed to support condemnation of repairable parts are referred to as replenishment spares.
A rotable pool may be a pool of repairable spare inventory put aside to permit for multiple repairs to be accomplished simultaneously, which may be wont to minimize stock out conditions for repairable items.
Parts that aren't repairable are considered consumable parts. Consumable parts are usually scrapped, or "condemned", once they are found to possess failed. Since no attempt at repair is formed, for a hard and fast mean solar time between failures (MTBF), replacement rates for consumption of consumables are above the same item treated as a repairable part. Therefore, consumables tend to be lower-cost items.
Because consumables are lower cost and better volume, economies of scale are often found by ordering in large lot sizes, a so-called economic order quantity.
From the attitude of logistics, a model of the life cycle of parts during a supply chain are often developed. This model, called the repair cycle, consists of functioning parts in use by equipment operators, and therefore the entire sequence of suppliers or repair providers that replenish functional part inventories, either by production or repair, once they have failed. Ultimately, this sequence ends with the manufacturer. This type of model allows demands on a supply system to ultimately be traced to their operational reliability, allowing analysis of the dynamics of the availability system, in particular, spare parts.
When stock out conditions occur, cannibalization can result. This is the practice of removing parts or subsystems necessary for repair from another similar device, instead of from inventory. The source system is typically crippled as a result, if only temporarily, so as to permit the recipient device to function properly again. As a result, operational availability is impaired.
Industrialization has seen the widespread growth of economic manufacturing enterprises, like the automotive industry, and later, the pc industry. The resulting complex systems have evolved modular support infrastructures, with the reliance on auto parts within the automotive industry, and replaceable computer modules referred to as field-replaceable units (FRUs).
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